Resistance to currently available antimalarial drugs has been confirmed in only two of the four human malaria parasite species, first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Plaquenil during surgery Hydroxychloroquine blocks tlf Chloroquine phosphate injection dosage The treatment regimens for chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infections are quinine sulfate plus doxycycline or tetracycline, or, atovaquone-proguanil, or artemether-lumefantrine, or mefloquine. These treatment options are equally recommended. Drug-resistant P. falciparum. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for it started to develop widespread resistance to it. Although resistance to these drugs tends to be much less widespread geographically, in some areas of the world, the impact of multi-drug resistant malaria can be extensive. Has also developed resistance to nearly all of the other currently available antimalarial drugs, such as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. Chloroquine resistance treatment Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium vivax, Drug Resistance in the Malaria-Endemic World Chloroquine side effects in children Chloroquine, used at recorded levels 190 tons hundreds of millions of treatment courses in Africa alone each year, has been a tremendous force driving the widespread replacement of chloroquine-sensitive by chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria The Journal of Infectious.. Chloroquine - Wikipedia. Medicines for the Prevention of Malaria While Traveling.. For treatment of malaria Adults—At first, 1000 milligrams mg once a day. Then, 500 mg 6 to 8 hours after the first dose, and 500 mg on the second and third days of treatment. Adults with low body weight and children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. Mg orally as a single dose. Use For treatment of mild to moderate acute malaria due to mefloquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains or P vivax. US CDC Recommendations 750 mg orally as initial dose, followed by 500 mg orally 6 to 12 hours after initial dose. In vivo resistance, as determined by persistent or recurrent parasitemia after treatment or by inadequate therapeutic response early or late treatment failure, depends not only on the innate ability of parasites to cope with chloroquine but also on host factors that affect parasite survival. Among these factors are drug uptake, distribution, and metabolism.