Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Clinical trials cancer chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine and smoking Chloroquine in chikungunya Plaquenil dosages Hydroxychloroquine, sold under the brand name Plaquenil Sanofi-Aventis, is an antimalarial drug that has gained widespread use in treating various autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. 1 By some estimates, more than 150,000 patients are on long-term therapy with this medication in America alone. 2 Retinal toxicity associated with HCQ use is. Early retinopathy has been defined as an acquired, persistent paracentral scotoma visualized on automated visual field testing without any observable fundus changes. 1 Reports have shown that the visual loss from HCQ toxicity is less likely to be reversible once fundus changes are present. 1,2,3 Although newer testing modalities, such as spectral domain-optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescenece, and multifocal electroretinogram, are now recommended as part of screening when. Visual fields. In early cases of Plaquenil toxicity, an early indicator of damage is the appearance of a paracentral scotoma seen on automated visual field testing in the absence of fundus changes. 18 Each of the testing strategies can be used to detect early toxicity changes, but the presentation of the visual field effects will vary. Due to the central area being depressed in the 24-2 and 30-2 testing strategies, it is difficult to discern the central 2-degree field of sparing seen in the. While early toxicity may be asymtomatic, patients with more advanced stage of toxicity may complain of color vision changes or paracentral scotomas. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. Plaquenil retinopathy visual fields Plaquenil therapy and eye exams. - Eye Care - MedHelp, Humphrey visual field findings in hydroxychloroquine toxicity Plaquenil corneal verticillata Many systemic medications may cause retinal toxicity. One such commonly used medication for dermatologic and rheumatologic inflammatory conditions is hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil, a chloroquine derivative. It is used to treat many diseases including malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine-Induced Retinal Toxicity - American.. How to Succeed in Plaquenil Screenings. Plaquenil Risk Calculators. Retinopathy before patients recognize visual loss. 3. The timing and extent of surveillance monitoring should take into account individual risk factors for toxicity related to hydroxychloroquine use. BACKGROUND 1 Hydroxychloroquine HCQ, brand name Plaquenil is commonly used for the long-term Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy is thought to be infrequent but of increasing prevalence because patients use the drug for many years or have undue exposure from overdosage or renal failure. 1 Screening in previous decades was primarily by subjective functional measures, such as the central visual field. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil and chloroquine cause ocular toxicity, including the cornea, ciliary body, and retina. Chloroquine can cause cataract; however, no reports of hydroxychloroquine and cataract have been reported. This article focuses upon hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.